Good design of crime prevention and crime reduction interventions is tightly linked to a combination of criminological theory, evidence, and a dept of experience and practice.
A central 'turf' war in crime prevention is between situational and social crime prevention approaches.
The most design-related realm of crime prevention is that of CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmetal Design)
Situational crime prevention
Situational crime prevention is at heart dominated by a target hardening perspective in which environments are changed to make it more difficult for offenders to commit crimes or reduce the opportunity for committing crimes relative to a certain level of effort and motivation.
In contrast, social crime prevention focuses on offenders as human beings that can be influenced to act in ways that are less criminal. Typical
The dominant view of hardline crime prevention practitioners has been that only situational crime prevention is effective, and that social crime prevention whilst emotionally appealinbg has not yet a proven basis in evidence.